“Education is the passport to the future, for tomorrow belongs to those who prepare for it today.”
In a developing country like India, one of the major scopes to become a developed nation is educating all its citizens. And the education must be quality education as said by Henry Ford – “Education is preeminently a matter of quality, not amount.” This quality education often differs between Government schools & private schools of higher education which are present in a ratio of 7:5 in India. There is a disparity between the Government & Private schools in contexts of infrastructures, facilities, socio economic background and the level of the teachers. Moreover, private schools provide education in layered manner for easy learning and also encourages co-curricular activities for the students. In India, students suffer for their multiple identities on the basis of cast , creed, religion, sex etc. not only diverse them but also suffer inequality.
In this country of diversity, education can only show light of unity among all. “Education is the primary asset which should be provided to all” – This is the statement on basis of which the whole Right To Education Act 2009 was established which boosted the literacy level to 74.04% from 64.84% in 2009. Government of India then came out with some schemes which helped to enhance the literacy rate along with the RTE Act as because the primary responsibility of a country is to provide equitable & quality education.
Under this topic illiteracy is a burning issue and the illiterates who had not received any primary education in their childhood become adults and turn into adult illiterates. For them especially self-education system is carried out just to recover the percentage of adult illiterates. In case of illiteracy, a typical kind of illiteracy is often seen as functional illiteracy…..
Functional illiteracy is reading and writing skills that are inadequate “to manage daily living and employment tasks that require reading skills beyond a basic level.” If one cannot read and write the native language may also be considered as Functional Illiterate. The basic difference between purely Illiterate and Functional Illiterate are purely illiterate person cannot read or write any type of thing , even they cannot write their names. But functional illiterate person can read or write simple words, sentences, can count and even can signature. So that the functional illiterates can read articles, notices, can do banking paper works. So the there are less potential to be cheated for the functional illiterate.
Adult education is such a process in which adults are engaged in systematic and sustained process of self-education in which they gained new forms of knowledge, skills, attitude, or values. In this process adults engaged in beyond traditional schooling to get basic literacy to personal fulfilment as a life ling learner. Adult education shines back a specific philosophy about learning and based on the adults who can and want to learn, are able and willing to take responsibilities for that learning and the learning is responsible to their needs. It can be any of the three contest-
i) Formal Education: This type of education is restricted under the educational or training institutes.
ii) Non-Formal Education: This is usually take place outside the formal education institutions.
iii) Informal Education: These type of learning goes all the time , gained from daily life activities, work, family, community and leisure.
There are difference between teaching adults and children because adults have knowledge and work experience which can add in learning.
Indian Government set up Director of Adult Education in the year 1956 which was renamed as Department of Adult Education under N.C.E.R.T. in 1961. Mainly in our country as adults are very much engaged in earning their living, the cannot afford the luxury to attend school. Being a developing country, the rural adult hardly can manage food for the family. So being literate without any job security is very sarcasm. Though the Director of Adult Education is promoting Adult Education as the literacy ration any country is extremely important as a country with educated adult population can get social, economic, technological and moral progress.
To overcome the comparatively high illiteracy rate in India, Government introduced an Act named Right to Education Act in 2009 to provide education to all the citizens of India…..
Right to Educational Act,2009:
The Right to Education Act enacted on 4August, 2009. The act allow Free and Compulsory education for children between 6 to 14 years under Article 21 of Indian constitution. After enacting the act India become one of the 135 countries which make education a fundamental right. The act came into force on 1 April, 2010. It requires 25% seats of all public schools. The act has some provisions to provide quality and compulsory education …….. like it “prohibits all unrecognized schools from practices”, and it has also provisions for no donation or capitation fees and no interview of the child or parents during admission. The act also said that there will be no held back or expelled of the children. There is also provision that special training should be provided fcor the school drop outs to make them eligible as the other children are. The World Bank education specialist Sam Carlson has said “ The RTE( Right to Education Act) is the first legislation in the world that puts the responsibility of ensuringenrolment, attendance and completion on the Government. It is the parents’ responsibility to send the children to schools in US and other countries.”
Simultaneously, with this act Indian Government has introduced some other schemes for overall progress……
In India we worship Goddess Saraswati but on the contrary girl education is comparatively lacking behind. To provide them better education opportunities a scheme has been introduced by CBSE.
UDAAN is formed by CBSE under Human Resource Development (HRD) to provide enrollment for girls who are left out of opportunities to study in prestigious Colleges/Universities/Institutions for Post-Graduation. 1000 girl students of class XI and XII are facilitated by CBSE by providing a study materials, regular tutorials with complete monitoring of the students. Students are allowed to clear their respective doubts through a given helpline. The selection of the beneficiaries are on the basis of merit and economic status.
India is in progress towards the formation of Digital India. In the making education is to be made digital for easy dissemination of education. A student might cannot get quality guidance from local teachers or tutors he or she can get help from the quality teachers online.....
SWAYAM (Study Webs of Active-learning for Young Aspiring Minds)
SWAYAM is conducted under Human Resource Development (HRD) to initiate long distance learning process by appointing professors of centrally funded institutions free of cost but fees can be levied in case the students ask for certificates. Variety of courses are offered in this online learning process for providing more options and opportunities for the students. The credits which are earned by the students in their respective courses can be transferred to their academic results.
Along with schemes, some surveys are necessary to be conducted for better functioning and their rectification…..
NAS (National Assessments Surveys)
NAS is conducted by NCERT after every 3 years of interval of for class III, V,VIII, X for inspection of the high secondary schools and also discuss about the betterment of the education and overall development of the student, CBSE introduced an examination for class IX & XI named PSA (Problem Solving Assessment) whose marks are attributed to class 10 board exams with some fixed weightage. This exam is basically introduced for students to solve logical reasoning.
This is the current education system in India which is guided by some Schemes, Act etc. which is regularly revised and new modifications are brought. Such as a scheme called Mid-Day Meal at deprived regions was introduced just to make all students be present at the school as the first priority of the students and their families were food. Hence such modifications are regularly needed in a healthy run of the programs of the Government as its primary duty is to provide basic education to all its citizen.
By Jayabrata Bardhan & Soumya Deep Saha