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Fisheries as livelihood: scenario of inland fisheries in Andhra Pradesh

Andhra Pradesh comes first in the production of fish in both Marine and Inland fisheries in India. In Andhra Pradesh there are two types of fisheries sectors available such as, Marine fisheries and Inland fisheries, and both of these sectors play an important role. But from last two decades there is a tremendous growth in fisheries since mid-1970s and has sustained over the last 25 years. . In Andhra Pradesh there are total 13 districts but coastal Andhra Pradesh comprises the 9 districts: East Godavari, West Godavari, Guntar, Krishna, Vizianagaram, Visakhapatnam, Prakasam, Srikakulam, Sri Ptti Sri Ramulu Nellore, and Vizianagaram.
In the Inland fisheries of Andhra Pradesh. Earlier they used to practice traditional fishing techniques which was known as capture technique, but in mid 1970s the fisheries department introduced culture fishing techniques in Krishna and West Godavari district. Culture fishing is concentrated in the two district and which has largest yield and production in these districts fishing has transcended from traditional caste based occupation to a non-fisheries caste based commercial activity. Out of the three sub sectors in fisheries marine, Brackish and Inland, the Inland fishery sub sector ranked second in the country. Inland fishery is practiced in natural resources such as reservoirs, perennial and long seasonal tanks, anicuts, ponds and rivers.
Capture fishing technique: - Capture based aquaculture is a term which 1st appeared in 2004. It describes a sub industry of aquaculture where the regular stocking material is obtained from catch of wild organism. Capture fishery refers to all kinds of harvesting of naturally occurring living resources in both marine and fresh water culture.
Culture fishing technique:-Culture fishing technique typically practiced in water bodies that do not or are incapable of supporting a fishery through natural recruitment. It is a form of aquaculture:- caring for stock, regular stocking and harvesting almost total harvest depends on stocked fish, ownership of stock; individual or cooperative, almost all of the yield from stocked fish. There are various countries they have adopt this technique such as:- India, Bangladesh< Vietnam< Thailand< Sri lanka.
Communities:-In fisheries sector mostly the underprivileged people are involved. They are not homogeneous as they belong to different caste. At least 2 to 3 communities are involved in every maritime state. Most of the communities elaborate their own techniques and management system to regulate human interaction, to avoid conflicts, to reduce competition. The traditional management system depends on the resources and environment. Apart from traditional caste based organization of fishing communities they are also engaged into different sectors such as trade unions, co-operatives, boat owner association, federations, self-help groups etc. there are different types of communities are in the fisheries sector which are pattainavars, kharvas, kolis, paravas, mukkuvars, mogaveeras etc. For the fishermen of the schedule caste and backward class, separate cooperative society were formed, and 10% of margin money of the total outlay was given to them. Of the 58 fishermen cooperative society 19 are schedule caste, service cooperative societies, 30 are backward class cooperative societies and 9 are economically backward classes fishermen societies.
Policies and Programmes:-For the growth of fisheries sector various policies and programmes have taken place with aim to increase fish production, promoting export, providing food security, improving welfare of fishermen etc. So, for the development first step towards it to develop fishing as an industry, and it was made in 1898. The first all India fisheries conference held in 1948 after independence in New Delhi in order to modernize the fisheries sector, it was necessary to create infrastructure so it was decided to obtain foreign co-operation. There are different schemes which are created for this sector such as Development of Inland Fisheries and Aquaculture, National Scheme of Welfare of Fishermen, National Fisheries Development Board, Assistance to Fisheries Institute, Development of Marine Fisheries, Infrastructure and Post-Harvest Operation, Issuance of Biometric Identity Cards to coastal fishermen. The main objectives of the scheme envisages encouraging leasing of water area, expanding aquaculture by construction of new ponds, popularizing fish/shrimp farming, utilizing vast brackish water area for fish culture, utilizing saline soil for raising commercial crop of fish, as well as involving Fish Farmers Development Agencies(FFDAS) fully for development & delivery of sustainable aquaculture throughout the country.
Inland Fish Production (‘ooo tonnes)
Andhra pradesh
672. 25

In the above table we can see that there is a continuous growth in the production of fish in the Andhra Pradesh. Which shows that fishery sector increase very rapidly, and it also shows that due to increase in the production it also provide livelihood to the major population of the Andhra Pradesh. There are different areas involved in the fishery sector as mentioned above so, it creates a different opportunities for the people. This job opportunities are mostly benefitting for the people who are economically backward so, it decreases the level of unemployment, this sector is principal source of livelihood for a large section of economically underprivileged population of the country especially in coastal areas. Due to increase in the production of fish it highly contributes in growth of the state. The impact of the intervention is the growth in the sectors connected with fishery. From a traditional caste based occupation it has now become an enterprise and has transcended the caste barriers. Such a situation was possible due to the specificity of the intervention.
Export:-According to 2001 data it was estimated that approximately Rs. 10995 crores of revenue to the state is generated from export of fish to other states. Export of the fish increase due to increase in production. It helps the economy of the country. The fish production in Andhra Pradesh is very good and the production is huge, In the transport approximately 150 lorries go out of the state everyday carrying fish to markets and come back only after 12 days ; that works out to 1800 lorries. If the cost of the each lorry is Rs. 7-8 lakhs, at 7 lakhs it works out to Rs. 126 crores of investment. Approximately 100 brokers and commission agents function in the two district and charge about 5% per lorry. The 82 fish seeds farm of the Andhra Pradesh fisheries department of all the district it supply 31 crores fish seeds out of the total production which is 89 crores. This fish seeds are produced by the Fisheries department and by private hatcheries. A traditional source of fish seed has been Kolkata, which over decades has been supplying fish seed to Andhra Pradesh
Conclusion: Fisheries sector is a very vast sector in India. It involves a various aspects which are directly affect our Indian economy. By the fisheries sector people get social benefits, cash income, household food securities, cultural benefits, employment benefits etc. More than 6 million fishermen and fish farmers are dependent on fisheries sector for their livelihood. Basically underprivileged people are involved in this sector so it provide them livelihood as well as a nutritional food. The money earn by the people by selling fish is provide them access to consume other facilities like health, education, clothing and other things. It reduces vulnerability to poverty and food security. Normally a fishermen form a group and does fishing together so, whatever money is earned by them, they can use it together to improve infrastructure and other facilities. In the exports of the country fisheries sector also play a major part, every year there is an increase in the export which in turn lead our economy towards growth, because it can bring foreign exchange in the country. So, if there is any challenges faced by then its impact will be far reaching. Not only fishing is activity but there are various other activities which are related to the sector like boat making, crafting, selling shells and stones etc. To increase the participation of the people in this sector and for more development of the sector there is need to create an awareness about this sector in the mind of the people.
  • Kumar.Anjani et .al NATIONAL CENTRE FOR AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS AND POLICY RESEARCH a profile of people ,technologies and policies in fisheries sector in india ,30-31
  • MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE AND FARMERS WELFARE Handbook on fisheries statistics
  • LMIS report on Fisheries Sector Agriculture Skill Council of India
  • Turaga.Janaki Livelihood Intervention Through Inland Fisheries: A case study from Andhra Pradesh
  • Masarguppi. Aruna, Thakur. Gitali Livelihood Interventions Among Marine Fisherman: The SIFFS experience
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