Population Growth is the increase in the number of individuals that reside in a country, state or city.
Development is a positive change that is desirable in particular time and place.
According to Thomas Malthus the principle is that Human populations grow exponentially while food production grows at an arithmetic rate.
Economic development depends on the personal satisfaction level of the every citizen in different place. This can be achieved by expanding the ways of living of each citizen - particularly by expanding the utilization level of sustenance, medicinal services, education, organize political, social and monetary segments that maintain the human qualities.
Population and development both are closely related. Development is possible when population growth is stable. In economy there are mainly three stages. Backward stage, developing stage and developed stage.
Those countries belong through backward stage their birth rate and death rate both is high because of poor health and education facility, poverty and unemployment. As they do not get proper education so most of the people are illiterate they are unemployed also, their reproduction rate is also high because they think, if they give birth of more than one or two baby in every each family then their money and wealth will be increases, for this reason child labour percentage is high in the under developed nations. Secondly, for poor health facility death rate is also high. Those countries will become developed countries if give them good education and health facility and then birth rate and death rate also low.
INDIA is the example of developing country. Govt. takes different policies to provide education and health facility to the people. Birth rate is high but death rate is low. So population growth is increases day by day. People should be aware of this the population growth otherwise development is not possible.
And in the developed country education and health facility are provided to all the citizens. All people are well educated and well informed. Here birth rate and death rate both are low and population growth rate is stable.
If population growth will increase day by day then different types of problem will also be occur:
1) In every country their resources is limited if population will increase reduce their resources. As a result come disease, starvation and war.
2) High birth rates and rapid population growth in poor countries would divert scare capital away from savings and investment, thereby placing a drag on economic development.
3) Large size population reduces per capita availability of capital in less developed countries where shows the scarcity of capital and less supply of their wants. As rapidly decline the availability of capital per worker so decrease the productivity also.
4) It also creates unemployment because huge people come for finding the job as per their skill. But it is not possible to get job all the person.
5) It creates food scarcity. As resources are limited for every nation so more population is the cause of food scarcity.
Fertility is a one of the important element of population Growth: In the under developed countries it is observed that many couple want more children and when given their option to use family planning, couples often start childbearing later, space pregnancies in farther apart. In the developing countries women want to space their next new birth or stop having children but not using a modern family planning.
To decrease the fertility rate it is necessary to make a strong family planning programme. At first combine the Investment of education, health, gender equality and employment that will help to the couple for taking decision of the timing and spacing of pregnancies and it also help to achieve their desired family size. In this way individual family slows the population growth and improve the health, education facility by good investment. Then it is easier for countries to achieve their development goals.
Food Crisis: It exists when all people at all times have both physical and economic access sufficient food to meet their dietary needs for a productive and healthy life. In 1990, under 92million people 24.8 million children are underweight and in 2010, under 130 million people 30.3 children are underweight. Some main reasons of this purpose are reproductive rate of women is below 15 age and food scarcity is also a big problem.
Then food crisis depends on main three components. Life styles, incomes, social organization determine the level of consumption. As technology determine the both damage level of human activity and sustain the environment so to prevent poverty it is necessary adopt the right technology. It also slows down the environmental degradation.
Environmental degradation: population growth, economic condition and consumption level will increase if change the climate condition and also decrease the biodiversity. Then come different type of environmental problems like shortage of fresh water and arable land, mounting waste, air, water. Decrease the food production and health will also be affected.
So it is too much necessary to maintain environmental condition.
Population determination factor:
Nation’s population determines the demand for social services and natural resources as well as size of the labour force.
According to the many leader development strategies depend on investment in health care, education, employment etc. This population growth also puts pressure on agricultural land, water etc.
By observing these things I am agree with this matter that over population is the against of development.
At last I find that
· Reduction of fertility provides a window opportunity for economic development and also helps to reduce the poverty.
· Empirical studies increasingly support the idea that countries which have incorporated population policies and family planning programme in their overall economic development strategies have achieved high and sustained rates of economic growth.
· If decrease the fertility rate, govt. can invest more money per capita in education, health. thus creating the human capital for sustained economic growth.
· Reduce the food scarcity and environmental degradation.
· Decrease migration also, people will be literate and increase the employment generation.
In this way gradually comes the development by stabling the population growth rate.
BY - Aditi Khan 6th sem, RKMVERI